The text interface of computer is called command line interface or CLI , most commonly referred to as Shell, Terminal, Console. or Prompt. It might seem to be complex and hard to use for regular PC users but never the less. computer geeks loves it and finds it easy -sometimes way easier- than Graphical User Interface or GUI to do certain tasks.

In this article, ill go through some of the most commonly used terminal commands, their usage and explanation,


#1   cd

changes the current working directory to other directories such as " / " , " ~ " or any other directory. its quite simple. just start typing the name of child directory under the current directory or use " ../ " to step back to the previous directory.

user@userComputer:~$ cd directoryName


#2    mkdir

the old fashioned way of creating directories. just navigate with " cd " to the specific place you want to add your directory and use mkdir with the new directory name .

user@userComputer:~/Desktop$ mkdir newDirName


#3    ls

list all visible files and sub directories in a directory, this command might be a bit tricky as you can change the type of listing when you add options to the command. 

user@userComputer:~/Desktop$ ls -a


example to list All the files and directories ( including the hidden ones )

user@userComputer:~/Desktop$ ls -a

./					NewDirName	
../					Directory


#4, #5   rm  &  rmdir

removes a file

user@userComputer:~/Desktop$ rm abc.html

to remove a directory you could use rmdir 

user@userComputer:~/Desktop$ rmdir Directory

but sometimes you may face some issues when the directory has files and sub directories in it.  though, the best method used is when using rm with recursive option flag -r

user@userComputer:~/Desktop$ rm -r Directory


#6   cp

copy a file or a directory to specified place and name.

user@userComputer:~/Desktop$ cp abc.html def.html


#7   mv

move  a file or a directory to specified place and name. technically speaking its the old fashioned way used to rename a file or directory.

user@userComputer:~/Desktop$ mv abc.html newName.html


#8    echo

if you are familiar with PHP, you might have used the function echo a lot. for command line. echo works the same. just add an argument after the command echo and it would printed as an output.

user@userComputer:~/Desktop$ echo what is dead may never die

what is dead may never die


#9    cat


#10   man


#11   exit


#12   chmod


#13    chown


#14    pwd

if you are between the lines and have no idea where is the current directory that you are in., type pwd to print working directory that is currently active


#15    find

look up files.


#16    grep

one of the most useful features and which might not be found in other operating systems such as windows. this command will help you to look up for a word or an argument inside a file or directory. 


#17    sudo

Become a super user. sudo stands for super user do. and thats dangerous sometimes as if you dont know what you are doing. you might ruin your computer.|
some command require sudo as you might type a command that require that special type of authentication.